<![CDATA[Ghana’s recent currency variation is unique. This was mostly due to actions of speculators, inaccurate newspaper reportage, and rigidities International Monetary Fund (IMF) placed on the Bank of Ghana (BoG). Minister for Finance, Ken Ofori-Atta, seeks to examine structural issues underpinning the historical performance of the GHS cedi. In his recent speech in parliament, Ghana’s Minister for Finance, Ken Ofori-Atta told lawmakers on 28 March that given the country’s current robust economic fundamentals, the Cedi’s depreciation is largely due to speculative behaviour of some portfolio investors and market participants and other market rigidities. One major market rigidity that contributed to the Cedi’s sharp depreciation, according to Vice President Dr Bawumiah, speaking at a 3 April Town Hall meeting in Accra, was due to one (1) of seven (7) conditions Ghana had to meet under IMF’s prior actions ahead of Ghana’s exit from a bailout, negotiated under the Mahama led NDC administration. That prior action required BoG to increase its reserves by about US$ 800million. “BoG could not sell any foreign exchange (Forex) in the market,” Vice President Dr Bawumiah said, the BoG could not intervene in the market during this particular period. So demand for Forex was not met by supply as normally happens on a day-to-day basis. And we know that when demand is greater than supply the price all things being equal goes up and this is exactly the situation Ghana currently finds itself” Enablers Speculation was spurred when falsehoods were spread across local media platforms in Ghana suggesting that the BoG was going to spend its reserves to prevent the cedi from depreciating against the US dollar. “Some people misunderstood the requirement from the IMF for BoG to build up its reserves by US$800million to mean that the bank used US$800million to reverse the cedi depreciation,” said the Vice President. Earlier, a myopic 22 February article by Bloomberg, deemed as having spurred currency speculators and led to a brief dip in the Ghanaian Cedi (GH¢), attracted the attention of many concerned analysts and economists. For some, it was an enabler article meant to trigger speculation. But the recovery of the Cedi in March got speculators scuttling to the market in droves to sell their US dollars, as Ghana’s Cedi saw a remarkable turnaround. Naysayers who enabled the flurry of activity by currency speculators moved to post-fail mode, with Bloomberg, which had led an apparent speculative charge, making a U-turn with its expression of confidence in Ghana’s economic fundamentals. This came after the country’s unparalleled success in its most recent Eurobond issuance, which was seven-times (7x) oversubscribed. Ghana’s economic fundamentals, among other indicators, can be seen from its exponential decrease in inflation. From over 15 per cent at the end of 2016 to a single digit inflation rate of 9.2 per cent, the lowest since 2013 signifying an effective inflation targeting regime by BoG. But the recent short-lived hike in the GH¢-USD exchange rate risked denting this gain, as speculators moved in— following what has been described as the publication of the “enabler” article by Bloomberg news. In what looked like a harbinger of speculation, that news website on 22 February had evoked troubles ahead for the Ghanaian cedi. Quoting a single source and using a brief fluctuation in the cedi/dollar trading value, Bloomberg caused the markets to react immediately, “denting the performance of an up and coming emerging economy in one fell swoop”, said Daniel Mensah, an Accra-based financial analyst with BDAC, an Accra-based business-consulting firm. “Fortunately, its effect on the economy was brief”. In less than a fortnight, however, the markets proved Bloomberg wrong. “It is clear from data that the depreciation of the cedi was not due to weak economic fundamentals but rather a combination of structural rigidities and the apparent speculative behaviour of portfolio investors and market participants”, said Ofori-Atta. “It is also noteworthy that […] the Cedi has however performed better over the last two (2) years compared specifically to 2012 to 2016,” the Finance Minister said. The cedi lost its dollar parity, falling to GH¢4.60 between 2009 and 2016. Daniel Mensah argues that “the depreciation trend was almost institutionalised during those eight (8) years and looking at the current macroeconomic data the culprit in the brief depreciation of the cedi could well be enabler articles from one of Bloomberg’s local correspondents whose articles continuously reflect speculative angles,” he said. Still, Bloomberg’s recent Cedi (GH¢) to Dollar (USD) rates reflect black market rates. Last week, as most international exchange rate platforms showed buying rates of between GH¢4.98 and GH¢5.1 to US$1, Bloomberg’s platform stayed several points ahead of its counterparts at between GH¢5.3 and GH¢5.5.