The president was repeatedly drowned out as he delivered one of shortest ever state of the nation speeches, lasting less than 30 minutes.
The opposition MPs sang protest songs against his 10-point plan to solve the country’s economic crisis.
More than 20,000 people have lost their jobs in the past seven weeks.
Members of Mr Mugabe’s ruling Zanu-PF party responded to the songs by the Movement for Democratic Change MPs by singing that the 91-year-old was still in charge.
The BBC’s Brian Hungwe reports that Mr Mugabe showed no emotion during the heckling but struggled to raise his voice above the opposition.
As he presented his plan, the president said that “Zimbabwe is already positioning itself for major economic take-off”.
He also highlighted infrastructure deals signed with China.